Gaps of knowledge of flora and fungi of Brazil 

or search species

The goal of this system is to facilitate the identification of taxonomic and geographic information gaps of native species of plants and fungi of Brazil. The system displays the status of online data for all valid native species in the Brazilian Flora 2020 obtained through its IPT service, including those without any record. The system also compares the Brazilian states where specialists indicate that the species occurs with the states that have occurrence points in Brazil's Virtual Herbarium, highlighting the gaps.

Data Sources

  • Virtual Herbarium of Plants and Fungi/speciesLink network (July 25, 2021)
  • Brazilian Flora 2020 (IPT of July 21, 2021, v. 393.293, excluding cultivated and naturalized species)
  • Official National List of Endangered Species of Flora – Act no. 443 of December 17, 2014 (Source: CNCFlora IPT and webservice)
  • Biogeography of Flora and Fungi of Brazil (dynamic access)

Search Filters

  • Taxonomic Filters: determine the taxonomic group, family, genus, or species to be analyzed, allowing the selection of species according to its origin, the inclusion of synonyms, and phonetic searches.
  • Geographic filters allow the evaluation of the status of the data considering geographic coordinates.
  • Endangered species included in Brazil's official endangered species list of flora are presented with pre-selected search filters.

Structure of the Report

By the selected taxonomic group, family or genus

  • The number of species separated into four groups: (i) those without records in the Virtual herbarium; (II) with 1-5 records; (III) with 6-20 records; and, (IV) with more than 20 records. This classification aims at showing the potential for modeling the species distribution (exploratory, preliminary of consistent models)
  • The number of species reported as occurring in a given state (Brazilian Flora 2020), but which have no record in the speciesLink network.

By species

  • Hierarchical classification according to the Brazilian Flora 2020
  • Conservation Status (Annex I or II MMA and Biodiversitas)
  • Table comparing the geographic distribution by state of the Brazilian Flora 2020 with the speciesLink network
  • Maps of species distribution: Brazilian Flora 2020, speciesLink network, and potential distribution model
  • Status and origin of data online: biological collection, year of collection, name status and geographic information

Expected usage

  • Guide the work of new collections, priority species and geographic areas
  • Assist in prioritizing digitization and georeferencing
  • Assist in the identification of understudied groups, indicating the need for training of taxonomists
  • Assist in the evaluation of the conservation status of species


SISBIOTA/CNPq, INCT - Virtual Herbarium of Flora and Fungi

How to cite

Gaps in Knowledge of Flora and Fungi of Brazil. INCT - Virtual Herbarium of Flora and Fungi. Available at: http://lacunas.inct.florabrasil.net/202107 (consulted on day / month / year).


Canhos DAL, Sousa MS-Baena, S. Souza, LC Garcia, R. De Giovanni, Maia LC, & Bonacelli MBM 2014. Lacunas: a web interface to identify plant knowledge gaps to support informed decision-making. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23 (1), 109-131.